Monday, 9 March 2015

CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA - GREAT RULER AND DISCIPLE OF CHANAKYA


 
Introduction

In 326 BCE, Chandragupta Maurya was only a youngster when Alexander the Great of Macedonia attacked India. Confronting solid safety all through what is presently Pakistan, and hampered by the high Hindu-Kush Mountains, Alexander's armed force lost its will to overcome India at the Battle of Jhelum (or Hydaspes River).

In spite of the fact that the Macedonians endured the Khyber Pass and vanquished Raja Puru (King Poros) close advanced Bhera, Pakistan, the battling was pretty much excessively for Alexander's troops. To top it all off, Raja Puru's armed force incorporated 30 war elephants, who spooked the Macedonian cavalry's stallions (and most likely the men, also). At the point when the triumphant Macedonians heard that their next target - the Nanda Empire - could summon 6,000 war elephants, the fighters revolted. Alexander the Great would not vanquish the furthest side of the Ganges.

Despite the fact that the world's most noteworthy strategist couldn't persuade his troops to tackle the Nanda Empire, five years after Alexander dismissed, a 20-year-old Chandragupta Maurya would finish that accomplishment, and go ahead to unite pretty much all of what is presently India. The youthful Indian emperor would likewise tackle Alexander's successors - and win.


Chandragupta Maurya's Birth and Ancestry:

Chandragupta Maurya was conceived at some point around 340 BCE, apparently in Patna, now in the Bihar condition of India. Given the unlimited compass of time since his introduction to the world, it is obvious that researchers are indeterminate of numerous subtle elements. Case in point, a few writings guarantee that both of Chandragupta's guardians were of the Kshatriya (warrior/ruler) position, while others express that his dad was a king however his mom was a servant from the humble Shudra (hireling) station.

It appears to be likely that his dad was Prince Sarvarthasiddhi of the Nanda Kingdom. Chandragupta's grandson, Ashoka the Great, later asserted a blood relationship to Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, yet this case is unconfirmed.

We know pretty much nothing about Chandragupta Maurya's adolescence and youth before he tackled the Nanda Empire. This backings the speculation that he was of humble birthplace, since no one recorded anything about him until he established the Mauryan Empire.


Topple of the Nanda:

From an early age, Chandragupta was bold and alluring - a conceived pioneer. The young man went to the consideration of an acclaimed Brahmin researcher, Chanakya, who had hard feelings toward the Nanda. Chanakya started to prepare Chandragupta to vanquish and lead in the spot of the Nanda Emperor; he helped the young man to raise an armed force, and taught him strategies through distinctive Hindu sutras.

Chandragupta partnered himself to the king of a mountain kingdom, maybe the same Puru who had been vanquished however saved by Alexander, and set out to vanquish the Nanda. At first, the upstart's armed force was repelled, however after a long arrangement of fights Chandragupta's powers laid attack to the Nanda capital at Pataliputra. In 321 BCE, the capital fell, and 20-year-old Chandragupta Maurya began his own dynasty - the Mauryan Empire.


The Mauryan Empire:
Chandragupta's new empire, at the time of its establishing, extended from what is currently Afghanistan in the west to Myanmar (Burma) in the west, and from Jammu/Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south. Chanakya served as what might as well be called a "leader" in the juvenile government.

At the point when Alexander the Great passed on in 323 BCE, his commanders separated up his empire into satrapies, so that each of them would have a region to run the show. By around 316, Chandragupta Maurya had the capacity overcome and join the majority of the satraps in the mountains of Central Asia, augmenting his empire to the edge of what is currently Iran, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.

A few sources affirm that Chandragupta Maurya may have masterminded the death of two of the Macedonian satraps: Philip child of Machatas, and Nicanor of Parthia. Provided that this is true, it was an exceptionally gifted act actually for Chandragupta - Philip was killed in 326 BCE, when the future leader of the Mauryan Empire was still a mysterious teen.


Push into Seleucid Persia:
In 305 BCE, Chandragupta chose to grow his empire into eastern Persia. At the time, Persia was administered by Seleucus I Nicator, originator of the Seleucid Empire, and a previous general under Alexander. Chandragupta grabbed a substantial zone in eastern Persia. In the peace arrangement that finished this war, Chandragupta got control of that land and the hand of one of Seleucus' girls in marriage. In return, Seleucus got 500 war elephants - which he put to great utilization at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE.


Vanquishing Southern India:

With as much region as he could agreeably control to the north and west, Chandragupta Maurya next turned his consideration south. With a multitude of 400,000, as indicated by Strabo, or 600,000, on the off chance that you accept Pliny the Elder, Chandragupta vanquished the greater part of the Indian subcontinent aside from Kalinga (now Orissa) on the east drift, and the Tamil kingdom at the most distant southern tip of the area mass.

Before the end of his rule, Chandragupta Maurya had bound together pretty much the majority of the Indian subcontinent under his principle. His grandson, Ashoka, would go ahead to add Kalinga and the Tamils to the empire, also.


Family Life:

The one and only of Chandragupta's rulers or partners for whom we have a name is Durdhara, the mother of his first child, Bindusara. Be that as it may, it is likely that Chandragupta had numerous more associates.

As indicated by legend, Prime Minister Chanakya was worried that Chandragupta may be harmed by his adversaries, so begun bringing little measures of toxin into the emperor's nourishment to develop a resistance. Chandragupta was unconscious of this arrangement, and imparted some of his nourishment to his wife Durdhara when she was exceptionally pregnant with their first child. Durdhara passed on, yet Chanakya hurried in and performed a crisis operation to uproot the full-term child. The newborn child Bindusara survived, however a touch of his mom's harmed blood touched his brow, leaving a blue bindu; spot that enlivened his name.

Lamentably, we don't think about any of Chandragupta's different wives or kids. Bindusara is likely still recollected more as a result of his child than for his own particular rule. He was the father of one of India's most prominent rulers ever - Ashoka the Great.


Chandragupta's Conversion to Jainism and Death:
When he was in his fifties, Chandragupta got to be intrigued with Jainism, a to a great degree parsimonious conviction framework. His master was the Jain example of piety Bhadrabahu.

In 298 BCE, the emperor disavowed his guideline, giving over force to his child Bindusara. Chandragupta made a trip south to a hollow at Shravanabelogola, now in Karntaka. There, the originator of the Mauryan Empire ruminated without consuming or drinking for five weeks, until he kicked the bucket of starvation. This practice is called sallekhana or santhara.


Chandragupta Maurya's Legacy:

The dynasty that Chandragupta established would govern over India and the south of Central Asia until 185 BCE. His grandson Ashoka would emulate Chandragupta's example in a few ways - vanquishing region as a young man, yet then getting to be ardently religious as he matured. Truth be told, Ashoka's rule in India may be the purest statement of Buddhism in any administration ever.

INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION - FIRST RECOGNIZED CIVILIZATION OF INDIA







The traces of civilization in the Indian subcontinent are to be found in spots along, or close, to the Indus stream. Unearthings initially directed in 1921-22, in the old urban communities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, both now in Pakistan, indicated an exceptionally perplexing civilization that initially added to some 4,500-5,000 years back, and ensuing archeological and recorded exploration has now outfitted us with a more definite picture of the Indus Valley Civilization and its occupants. The Indus Valley individuals were undoubtedly Dravidians, who may have been pushed down into south India when the Aryans, with their more propelled military innovation, started their relocations to India around 2,000 BCE. Despite the fact that the Indus Valley script stays undeciphered down to the present day, the various seals found amid the unearthings, and in addition statuary and earthenware, also the vestiges of various Indus Valley urban areas, have empowered researchers to build a sensibly conceivable record of the Indus Valley Civilization.

A brought together state, and unquestionably genuinely broad town arranging, is proposed by the design of the colossal urban communities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. The same sort of blazed block seems to have been utilized as a part of the development of structures in urban communities that were as much as a few hundred miles separated. The weights and measures demonstrate an exceptionally impressive normality. The Indus Valley individuals tamed creatures, and reaped different yields, for example, cotton, sesame, peas, grain, and cotton. They might likewise have been an ocean faring individuals, and it is fairly intriguing that Indus Valley seals have been dug up in such places as Sumer. In many regards, the Indus Valley Civilization seems to have been urban, opposing both the prevalent thought of India as an unceasingly and basically agrarian civilization, and additionally the idea that the change from "provincial" to "urban" speaks to something of a legitimate movement. The Indus Valley individuals had a shipper class that, confirmation proposes, occupied with far reaching exchanging.

Not Harappa or Mohenjodaro demonstrate any proof of flame sacrificial stones, and thusly one can sensibly guess that the different ceremonies around the blaze which are so basic in Hinduism were presented later by the Aryans. The Indus Valley individuals don't seem to have been in ownership of the steed: there is no osteological confirmation of stallion stays in the Indian sub-landmass before 2,000 BCE, when the Aryans first came to India, and on Harappan seals and terracotta figures, stallions don't show up. Other than the archeological remains of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, these seals give the most nitty gritty intimations about the character of the Indus Valley individuals. Bulls and elephants do show up on these seals, yet the horned bull, most researchers are concurred, ought not be brought to be compatible with Nandi, or Shiva's bull. The horned bull shows up in various Central Asian figures also; it is likewise vital to note that Shiva is not one of the divine beings conjured in the Rig Veda. The respected bovine of the Hindus additionally does not show up on the seals. The ladies depicted on the seals are indicated with involved hairstyles, donning overwhelming gems, proposing that the Indus Valley individuals were a urbane individuals with developed tastes and a refined tasteful sensibility. A couple of thousand seals have been found in Indus Valley urban communities, demonstrating around 400 pictographs: excessively few in number for the dialect to have been ideographic, and an excess of for the dialect to have been phonetic.

The Indus Valley civilization raises an extraordinary numerous, generally uncertain, questions. Why did this civilization, thinking of it as' refinement, not spread past the Indus Valley? All in all, the territory where the Indus valley urban areas created is dry, and one can infer that urban improvement occurred along a waterway that flew through a virtual desert. The Indus Valley individuals did not create farming on any expansive scale, and hence did not need to clean up an overwhelming development of backwoods. Nor did they have the innovation for that, since they were restricted to utilizing bronze or stone executes. They didn't practice waterway watering system and did not have the overwhelming furrow. Most essentially, under what circumstances did the Indus Valley urban communities experience a decrease? The principal assaults on peripheral towns by Aryans seem to have occurred around 2,000 BCE close Baluchistan, and of the significant urban communities, at any rate Harappa was likely over-run by the Aryans. In the Rig Veda there is notice of a Vedic war god, Indra, annihilating a few strongholds and fortresses, which could have included Harappa and some different Indus Valley urban communities. The customary authentic story discusses a destructive blow that struck the Indus Valley Civilization around 1,600 BCE, however that would not clarify why settlements at a separation of a few hundred miles from one another were all killed. The most convincing recorded account still recommends that the destruction and inevitable vanishing of the Indus Valley Civilization, which owed something to inside decay, in any case was encouraged by the landing in India of the Aryans.

BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY: BIGGEST TRAGEDY OF INDIA







INTRODUCTION

The Bhopal disaster was an industrial disaster that occurred in the city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, resulting in the immediate deaths of more than 3,000 people, according to the Indian Supreme Court. A more probable figure is that 8,000 died within two weeks, and it is estimated that the same number have since died from gas related diseases.
The incident took place in the early hours of the morning of December 3, 1984, in the heart of the city of Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. A Union Carbide subsidiary pesticide plant released 42 tonnes of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas, exposing at least 520,000 people to toxic gases. The Bhopal disaster is frequently cited as the world's worst industrial disaster. The International Medical Commission on Bhopal was established in 1993 to respond to the disasters.


INCIDENT

In the early hours of December 3, 1984, on what was a supporting winter morning, blended with the winter breeze, was an exceptionally dangerous dark cloud that was rising up out of the Union Carbide "C" production line. This toxic substance, put away in tank number 610 of the processing plant was later discovered to be Methyl Isocynate (MIC), which had got polluted with water. As per specialists, MIC is thought to be an amazingly responsive substance and is utilized to deliver insect poisons. At the point when water got blended with this MIC, an exothermal compound response began which brought about a ton of warmth being created. As the weight in the tank developed past protected levels, the security valve blast open brutally and the gas spilled. As around forty tons of this gas spread through the city, there was no alert or any sort to caution the tenants of this crowded town. Since the gas spilled out from a 30 meter smokestack, it was not sufficiently high for the individuals to escape the impacts. Later studies have demonstrated that the impact of this poisonous gas was particularly unforgiving due to the high dampness content in the gas, which when uncovered, began vanishing and being a substantial gas, the gas began moving downwards. The development of the wind was additionally such that the gas spread through the city much quicker than it generally would have.


BACKGROUND

The Union Carbide India, Limited (UCIL) plant was secured in 1969. 51% was claimed by Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) and 49% by Indian powers. It delivered the pesticide carbaryl (exchange mark Sevin).

Methyl isocyanate (MIC), a moderate in carbaryl assembling, was utilized rather than less dangerous yet more costly materials. UCC was very much aware of the substance's properties and how it must be taken care of.

In 1979, a plant for creating MIC was added to the UCIL plant. UCC was in charge of all system and configuration. The plant was spotted near to a thickly populated region, rather than on the opposite side of the town where UCIL was offered a zone. MIC was put away in a couple of huge tanks rather than a few little tanks.

Amid the night of December third 1984, a lot of water entered tank 610, containing 42 tons of methyl isocyanate. The subsequent response produced a noteworthy increment in the temperature of fluid inside the tank to more than 400°F (200°C). The MIC holding tank then gave off a huge volume of harmful gas, compelling the crisis arrival of weight. The response was accelerated by the vicinity of iron from eroding non-stainless steel pipelines.

There have been a few hypotheses on the explanation behind the section of water into the tank. The laborers guarantee that, in light of the awful upkeep with spilling valves and so on, it was workable for the water to move from the point where the pipeline washing was performed to tank 610. UCC keeps up that this was unrealistic, and that it was a demonstration of treachery by a "disappointed specialist" who brought water specifically into the tank.

The two most vital components prompting the super gas break were plant configuration (utilizing perilous chemicals rather than less risky, putting away in extensive tanks, conceivable eroding material in pipelines and so forth), and the financial weight and curtailing expences (diminishment of staff, wellbeing frameworks not working and so on). Variables choosing the result of the spillage were area close to a thickly populated zone, non-existing calamity arrangement, weaknesses in social insurance and financial recovery and so forth. Examination demonstrates that the gatherings in charge of the extent of the disaster are the two managers, Union Carbide Corporation and the Government of India, and to some degree, the Government of Madhya Pradesh.


EFFECTS

Inside hours, the roads of Bhopal were littered with human carcasses and the bodies of bison, cows, pooches and fledglings. An expected 3,800 individuals kicked the bucket instantly, basically in the poor slum state nearby the Union Carbide plant. Nearby healing facilities were soon immersed with patients, an emergency further confused by an absence of information of precisely what gas was included, what its belongings were and what the conceivable cure could be. Since the incident occurred on an icy night when a large portion of the individuals where inside, they woke up with a blazing sensation in their eyes. They surged outside just to inhale more prominent amassings of the gas and in frenzy as they ran, breathing much more prominent volumes of the gas, eventually stifling themselves to death. Inevitably the loss of life rose to more than 20,000 individuals with more than 5,00,000 individuals being influenced specifically and by implication and numerous more a huge number of families were for all time influenced for eras. After two decades, more than a couple of lakhs of individuals are as yet experiencing the crippling impacts of the gas which incorporates respiratory issues, tumor, inborn conception imperfections, lack of sight and numerous different illnesses. Consistently from that point forward, scores more are as yet kicking the bucket in Bhopal from the different delayed consequences. A portion of the indications of Methyl Isocynate sullying incorporate hack, dyspnea or issue of the lungs, midsection torment prompting intense lung disappointment, heart failure and passing. It has brought about numerous youngsters being conceived with hereditary imperfections and changes and mental impediment. It has likewise had a long haul affect on the regenerative cycle of influenced ladies and the nature of their bosom milk.

Other than the consequences for individuals, as per preservationists, the effect it has had on the biology of that territory is additionally sweeping. There are still several tons of lethal waste alone, which could prompt a persistent harming of the dirt and additionally ground water. A few zones in and around that region are still so dirtied that somebody entering that territory is liable to lose cognizance in under ten minutes.


PRO-EFFECTS

Examinations concerning the catastrophe demonstrated that there were numerous weaknesses at all levels. The Union Carbide processing plant did not have much data about the safe stockpiling of these very poisonous gasses. The therapeutic club did not have the imperative know how to manage such sort of defilement and at this scale. There was an absence of co-appointment between the production line and crisis administrations. There were very few prepared experts in that production line. Expense cutting had additionally had its effect on the wellbeing of the plant, its representatives and the individuals living around the plant. The plant was additionally in a thickly populated zone of the city which conflicted with most known standards.

The Union Carbide production line shut down their operation in Bhopal after the catastrophe, yet they didn't do a fitting clean up of the site because of which it is a bio-dangerous zone even today. This breach has brought about, what numerous hippies assert, a moderate and managed contamination of the zone inside and around the shut manufacturing plant.

Following quite a while of court cases and contentions and examinations, however remuneration has been paid to a significant number of the exploited people, it is insufficient and there is still an in number feeling of foul play that waits noticeable all around. In spite of the fact that a remuneration of about 470 million USD has been called for, it is without a doubt a little sum in light of the long haul wellbeing results of presentation and the quantity of individuals influenced. Over twenty years of resignation has taken its toll. Numerous are calling it the world's greatest humane disaster. By implication it has lead to huge unemployment, dejection and broad mental issues in the individuals.


A STRUGGLE FOR JUSTICE

In the wake of the disaster, the survivors gathered to battle for equity. In January 1985 an appeal was coursed by Mr. Syed Irfan, pioneer of the Bhopal Gas Peedit Mahila Purush Sangarsh Morcha association, and different survivors tending to the leaders of the Madhya Pradesh government for medicinal and money related help.

Few individuals were sufficiently sound after the disaster to do the kind of physical work they had done in advance. Numerous expected to be taught new artworks. The Indian Government at first set up lessons for survivors to learn exchanges, yet did not give conventional occupations. The ladies at one stationary processing plant chose to unionize, shaping the Bhopal Gas Peedit Mahila Stationary Karamchari Sangh or "Bhopal Gas-Affected Women's Stationary Worker's Union". Driven by future Goldman Award Winners Rashida Bee and Champa Devi Shukla, the union strove for a considerable length of time to arrange with the legislature for fair wages. At last, they walked from Bhopal to Delhi to appeal to the Prime Minister of India. It took them thirty-three days to achieve Delhi, and even in the wake of having gotten a few guarantees of help, little was carried out. Despite the fact that the BGPMSKS battle went on for over 10 years, it was eventually effective. In the interim, the union got to be profoundly included in the more extensive battle for equity in Bhopal, turning into one of four key survivors associations to lead the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal.

Today, the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal is stronger than at any other time in recent memory some time recently. Inside the previous two years the battle has won a few huge triumphs, enhancing the lives and the state of the populace of Bhopal.

In spite of the repulsiveness of the night of December 3, 1984 and the concoction dread that its survivors have persevered through, the populace of Bhopal proceed with their battle for equity, for corporate responsibility, and for their fundamental human right to a situation free of synthetic toxins. The result of their battle holds unfathomable ramifications for every one of us; if companies aren't considered responsible for their unlawful acts, they're bound to be rehashed. We all live in Bhopal.

The main commemoration inherent Bhopal was secretly subsidized, composed by the little girl of Holocaust victimized people. In strong letters, the engraving peruses, "No Hiroshima, No Bhopal, We Want To Live." With your assistance and that of others, the equity that has been so since a long time ago deferred in Bhopal can't be denied.

CONCLUSION

The disaster did make ready for much stricter global measures for natural security, deterrent methods to keep away from comparative mischances and a superior condition of readiness to meet future mechanical disaster. In India, various changes were made in the Indian Factories Act and ecological enactment. There is a vastly improved comprehension of the way that commercial enterprises need to apply great procedure security administration frameworks and have proficient and safe taking care of and stockpiling limits of individual responsive chemicals. Taking after the disaster, natural mindfulness and activism in India has expanded immensely. It serves as a cautioning to creating countries to make the right harmony between human, ecological and monetary status on the way to industrialization.