Tuesday, 16 July 2013


Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the maker of modern India played a key role in building the nation as we perceive it today. No doubt that Nehru Ji, or we might better call him by his title Chacha Nehruwas a peace loving man. He was fond of children too, and that’s why he is known as Chacha Nehru. But very few really know about what was Nehru like in his personal life.
Jawaharlal Nehru married to Kamala Nehru in 1916. Indira Priyadarshini Nehru was born to them in 1917. Kamala Nehru was diagnosed with tuberculosis and despite her treatment in Switzerland, she could not make through her disease and died on February 1936. After the death of Kamala Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru devoted all of his strength and time as a freedom fighter.
Apart from fulfilling duties, this handsome widower shared a deep bonding with a beautiful woman Edwina, Lady Mountbatten, wife of chief representative and last viceroy of India. Pamela Mountbatten, daughter of Lord and Lady Mountbatten, writes in her book “India Remembered” about the healthy relationship that her mother and Nehru shared. In a section titled ‘A special Relationship’ she writes: “My mother had already had lovers. My father was inured to it. It broke his heart for the first time, but it was somehow different with Nehru… ”.
She also quoted a letter which Lord Mountbatten wrote to her elder sister in June 1948, “She and Jawaharlal are so sweet together, they really dote on each other in nicest way and Pammy and I are doing everything we can to be tactful and help. Mummy has been incredibly sweet lately and we have been such a happy family.”
So, there existed an excellent harmony among the three, and indeed they carried of their relationships very well. If rumors are to be believed, then it is also said that Edwina was totally flattered by the way Nehru spoke and wrote English. Pamela also included a letter written by Nehru to Edwina in March 1957. “Suddenly I realized (and perhaps you also did) that there was a deeper attachment between us, that some uncontrollable force, of which I was dimly aware, drew us to one another, I was overwhelmed and at the same time exhilarated by this new discovery. We talked more intimately as if some veil had been removed and we could look into each other’s eye without fear or embarrassment.”
Well, it seems as if these lines are written by a veteran poet, and maybe that explains the reason why he was a charmer in Edwina’s eyes. Pamela further describes their relationship was “platonic” and “although it was not physical, it was no less binding for that. It would last until death.”

And somehow Pamela’s words sound true. When 58 year old Edwina died in 1960, collection of Nehru’s letters was found beside her bed. And it was not all, as the body was taken by Royal Navy to its sea burial; Prime Minister Nehru finally made his public declaration of his devotion, by sending his own Indian Navy to cast wreath into water on his behalf.

Monday, 24 June 2013


1. Vijayanagara Empire

Virupaksha Temple at Hampi
Sangama dynasty princes Harihara I and Bukka Raya I founded Vijayanagara in 1336. This mighty city was the capital of an empire of the same name, one of the largest superpowers in Hindu history. The golden years of this Indian realm lasted about 20 years, from 1509-29, under Krishnadevaraya. During this time, the city itself covered 33 sq km and the empire stretched across almost the entire peninsula south of the rivers Krishna and Tungabhadr.

1. 2. Puhar

A seven-tiered building now stands as the Sillappathikara Art Gallery.
Puhar is a town in the Nagapattinam district in the southeastern state of Tamil Nadu in India. Ancient Puhar was called Kaveripattinam (or Poompuhar or Kaveripumpattinam), the flourishing port city capital of of the early Chola kings in Tamilakkam. Located near the mouth of the Kaveri river, the city served as a great trading centre, where large 

3. Muziris

Roman map of India showing Muziris on the east coast.
Muziris is the Greek-Roman name for an ancient port-city located on the Malabar Coast of South India. Although there has been confusion as to the location of the port, it is generally known to be located somewhere in the southern and southwestern region of India, possibly around the ancient town of Kodungallur, which is beside the mouth of the Periyar river in Kerala. In early 2004, archeological findings in Pattanam revealing remnants of Roman commerce led researchers to believe that the ancient Muziris was located in this modern-day city. The findings suggest that South India actively traded international goods with West Asia, the Near East and Europe through the port at Muziris. The ancient name of Pattanam is believed to be Maliankara, where Thomas the Apostle is said to have landed.
It is unknown as to when the port was created, though scientists agree that it likely existed before 1500 BC and that it was a major trade centre by 500 BC; it is believed the city was likely wiped out by an earthquake in the mid-13th century CE.ships docked to bring lovely merchandise to citizens from lands far afiel

4. Lothal

Conceptual image of Lothal
The ancient city of Lothal can be found in the state of Gujarat. Dating from 2400 BC, this lost city is one of India's most important archaeological sites from the Indus Valley era. It was discovered in 1954 and excavated between 1955 and 1960 by the Archeological Society of India (ASI); renewed excavations in 1961 revealed trenches in the northern, eastern and western flanks of the mound, proving that inlet channels and 'nullahs' (ravines or gullys) connected the dock with the river

5. Kalibangan

The western mound, known as the 'Citadel' can be seen here in the ruins of Kalibangan.
Kalibangan is located on the southern banks of the Ghaggar (Ghaggar-Hakra River) in the Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan state. Known for being the site of the earliest ploughed agricultural field (ca. 2800 BC), the regular, grid pattern of furrows used in this ancient field is a practice that is still used today.
Italian Luigi Tessitori was the one who made the important link that Kalibangan was the site of an ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Unfortunately, Tessitori did not see the site fully excavated before he died in 1919; in fact, the ASI did not complete excavations until 1969 (a nine-year project). What archeologists found were two mounds representing two phases of settlement: the first between 3500 BC and 2500 BC and the second between 2500 BC and 1750 BC. Evidence points to an earthquake around 2600 BC that brought an end to the first settlement while the second settlement was believed to have been abandoned because of a dried up river.

6. Surkotada

Present-day Kutch desert
The site of Surkotada is located 160 km north-east of Bhuj in the district of Kutch, Gujarat. The ancient mound is surrounded by sandstone hills covered with red laterite soil, giving the whole area a reddish brown colour, where only cacti, small babul and pilu trees and thorny shrubs exist.
The mound of this lost city was discovered by Shri Jagat Pati Joshi of the ASI in 1964. Surkodata was occupied for an uninterrupted period of 400 years beside a large river 750 m wide (now a tiny stream) that flowed past the northeastern side of the site. The first period lasted from 2100 BC - 1950 BC; the second phase, from 1950 BC - 1800 BC, brought a new wave of people, marked by new types of pottery and instruments. This phase ended with a large fire, bringing in the final phase, from 1800 BC - 1700 BC. While most of the Indus Valley Civilization has decayed or died out by 1700 BC, Surkotada was still functioning as a mature, civilized city.

7. Pattadakal

Temples located at Pattadakal
Pattadakal is a town located on the banks of the Malaprabha River in northern Karnataka. The group of ten 8th-century CE monuments includes majestic temples, a monolithic stone pillar and a Jain sanctuary

Friday, 14 June 2013


The bow of lord Shiva, kept with the ancestors of king Janak of Mithila was unique among them. When Ram and Laxman went to Mithila with seer Viswamitra, they desired to see the great bow.’King Janak asked his ministers to make arrangements to bring that powerful bow. The great heavenly bow was placed in an eight - wheeled huge iron chest. Some five thousand tall and well built men could propel it to the place where Saint Vishamitra was sitting with Ram and Laxmana.’(1)

Janak told to Ram and Laxman, introducing them to that bow:
 ‘This has been ever worshipped by the Jankas. Many great warrior kings, famous for their unparallel strength, could not move it even a little from it’s place in past times. No Gods, Asuras and Gandharvas could string it. How can poor human beings could be able to bend and string it and place an arrow and vibrate its string to operate it?’(2)

 ‘With the permission of king Janak and great seer Vishvamitra, Ram seized the bow at the middle and lifted it sportingly and set the string to the bow. But as he pulled the string   up to his ear, it broke from the middle producing   thunderous voice as if mountains cracked. A violent earthquake followed it. All present there, excepting the seer Vishamitra, king Janak and two brothers, Ram and Laxman, toppled down.’(3)

 Thunderous sound of breaking of the bow was so strong that it was heard by residence of other lokas. Great warrior -saint Parasuram rushed to Mithila hearing that sound.  He saw the great bow broken from the middle. He could not believe that some one on the earth could lift the bow, tie it’s string to it and can make it operational by stretching it’s string up to his ears and break it. It was an impossible deed. In order to measure the ocean deep strength of Ram, he gave his own great bow to him to tie its string with it. Ram did it with in no time.
The bow of Prasuram was also one of the rarest possible bows of its time. In ‘Mhabharat’ Bhishma described the bow of Parashuram, ‘as huge as a palm tree which created mountain – tearing sound when operated.’(5)

What really was the bow of Shiva which was so heavy that thousands of bravest men could not even move it a little from it’s place? It cannot be only a bow. Was it fixed and mobile weapon- launchers for the ATOMIC ARROWS of its time? A description of arrow operated by Ram at the time of waiting near the ocean with his army, makes it clear that atomic arrows were already invented and operated at rare occasions, by rarest possible warriors, who were specially skilled in it, in those wars.
Valmiki has described the strong vibration created from the tightened string tied to the bow of Ram, causing great fear and disturbance among living and non livings, in these words:

‘When Ram could not find any means to make a path through the ocean to reach to Lanka with his whole army, he decided to do so by drying the ocean. In order to do this ‘he fixed Brahmadand charged with Brahmaastra on the string of his great bow and stretched it with full force for its final operation. This created so much fear all over that heaven and earth started shaking with its mountains and rivers. Lakes and rivers agitated. Sun and moon changed their way. The ocean, with the mass of its water and waves surged beyond its confines to the extent of about eight miles.  Finally on the request of the ocean he turned the direction of his arrow and released it, causing a huge part of ocean turned into a desert.’(5) The deserts of Bikaner and Marwar of modern Rajasthan are believed to be the same. An ATOMIC ARROW can only produce such terribly horrifying effect and destruction.


Flying Aircraft & Nuclear War and Other Strange Occurrences of The Past

The Indian Epics,  especially the MAHABHARATA, pick up the thread of the tale of devastation and destruction. Atlantis, rather displeased at its humiliating  defeat,  deceived   that  they  were  no  longer interested in subjugating  the Rama Empire (An Indian  Empire),  and decided instead to annihilate the major cities using weapons of mass destruction. Sanskrit scholars  could  not comprehend what was being described in the Epics until the dropping  of the first atomic bombs on Japan. There are AUTHENTIC VERSES from the Indian Epics:
“Gurkha, flying a swift and powerful vimana (fast aircraft)
hurled a single projectile (rocket) charged with the power
of the Universe (nuclear device). An incandescent column of
smoke and flame, as bright as ten thousand suns, rose with
all its splendor.
It was an unknown weapon, an iron thunderbolt, a gigantic

messenger of death, which reduced to ashes the entire race
of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas.
The corpses were so burned as to be unrecognizable.

Hair and nails fell out; Pottery broke without apparent cause,
and the birds turned white.
…After a few hours all foodstuffs were infected…

…to escape from this fire the soldiers threw
themselves in streams to wash themselves and their
equipment.” — The Mahabharata
Indeed, this story is said to originate nearly 24,000 years ago! 
If this is true than we are not the most advanced. 
As the Bible says “There is nothing new under  the  sun.” Evidence  for  Atlantis   is   well documented.
If the above was not enough to convince your let me take you in deeper into this nuclear war:
“It was a weapon) so powerful that it could destroy the earth
in an instant  A great soaring sound in smoke and flames 
And on its sits death…” – The Ramayana
“Dense arrows of flame, like a great shower, issued
forth upon creation, encompassing the enemy…
A thick gloom swiftly settled upon the Pandava hosts.
All points of the compass were lost in darkness.
Fierce wind began to blow upward, showering dust and gravel.
Birds croaked madly… the very elements seemed disturbed.
The earth  shook,  scorched  by the terrible violent heat of this weapon.
Elephants burst into flame and ran to and fro in a frenzy…
over a vast area, other animals crumpled to the ground and died.
From all  points  of  the compass  the  arrows  of  flame  rained
continuously and fiercely. — The Mahabharata
The Ramayana and  the  Mahabharata seem like science  fiction.   Not only did aircraft exist such as Vimanas and Vailxi (as the Atlantian craft are called),  they  had  nuclear  weapons. There seems to be a fear of educating the worlds people  about  the  distant past.  Even empires and leaders of China’s past to Christians  to  Arab  peoples would destroy history  in  such  a way that records of there amazing cultures and events are nearly all  wiped  out. Indian Epics however are still with us intact. Records of South American  history all but gone.  Fear, and  other  factors have removed most of history before 5,000 years. Some only 1,000 years  ago. In the America’s just 300 -500 years all  most all lost! Today, perhaps some  UFO  records  are going the way of fears gate! However, again a few stories live on.
In another amazing  Indian  text  the  Agastrya  Samhita  gives  the precise directions for constructing electrical batteries:
“Place a well-cleaned copper plate in an earthenware vessel.
Cover it first by copper  sulfate  and  then  moist sawdust.
After that put a mercury-amalgamated-zinc sheet on top of
an energy known by the twin name of Mitra-Varuna. Water will
be split  by  this current into Pranavayu and  Udanavayu.  A
chain of one hundred jars is said to give a very active
and effective force.” –Agastya Samhita (Indian Princes’ Library)
By the way,  MITRA-VARUNA is now called cathode-anode, and Pranavayu and Udanavayu are to us oxygen and hydrogen. This document again demonstrates the presence of electricity  in  the  East,  long, long ago.  In the  not  so distant past strange events  are  recorded  in Europe’s past.
At Mount Cassino in Italy there is a large and heavy stone which was traditionally lifted by   Saint   Benedict  (A.D.  448-548)  by  the neutralization of gravity.  This stone  was intended for the wall of the monastery being  built at that time. The stonemasons  could  not budge it. However, Saint Benedict made the sign of the cross on the block, and while  the  seven  men  who  could  not lift it looked in amazement, he raised it alone without  any effort.  If this is true, than its evidence of God’s hand at work!
Even stranger is this: King Ferdinand I was a host  to Saint Francis of Paula (1416-1505)  in  Naples.  Through  a  half-opened  door  he witnessed the monk inmeditation,  floating  high above the floor of his room.
Again in the fairly long ago past in China Emperor Cheng Tang (1766 B.C.), ordered Ki-Kung-shi  to  construct  a  flying   chariot.  The primeval aviation constructor  completed  the  job  and  tested  the aircraft. In flight, reaching the  province  of Honan. Subsequently, (from fear) the vessel was destroyed by imperial edict as Cheng Tang feared the secret of its mechanism might fall into the wrong hands.
If one looks at the past he can foresee and even change the future. Will we be  faithful  to  God  as  the  saints and lift  objects  or ourselves by Gods  power?  Will we ever come to full out Nuclear War as the people of Atlantis and Rama 24,000 years ago?
Will we build  Flying Chariots (Flying  Saucers)  and  destroy  them because we fear into what hands they will fall?  What will man do to destroy his past, present or future?  I leave that  question  up  to you!!!
Subject Related: The Mahabharata, Book 8: Karna Parva, Kisari Mohan Ganguli, tr. [1883-1896]  http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m08/m08034.htm
“It was an unknown weapon, an iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death, which reduced
to ashes the entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas.” is actually found in Section 1 of
Mausala Parva.( http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m16/m16001.htm).
“When then next day came, Samva actually brought forth an iron bolt through which all the
individuals in the race of the vrishnis and the andhakas became consumed into ashes.
Indeed, for the destruction of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas, Samva brougt forth, through
that curse, a fierce iron bolt that looked like a Gigantic messenger of death. The fact
was duly reported to the king. In distress of mind, the king (Ugrasena) caused that iron
bolt to be reduced to a fine powder.Men were employed to cast the powder into the sea.”
The term “10000 suns” and “Super-abundant” perfectly fit into today’s description of Nuclear Energy. In fact what is depicted as an Iron bolt could actually have referred to Radioactive Iron (Iron-59 is known to be radioactive). Perhaps the usage of Iron-59 as a nuclear weapon was known to man in ancient times. The last sentence ” to cast the powder into sea”, is in good terms with the fact that water is a very effective shield for nuclear radiations. Perhaps that was the intention in casting the iron powder into the sea.
The section 2 of the Mausala parva also has,
“The streets swarmed with rats and mice. Earthen pots showed cracks or broke from no
apparent cause. At night, the rats and mice ate away thehair and nails of slumbering men”
“Fires, when ignited, cast their flames towards the left. Sometimes they threw out flames
whose splendour was blue and red. The Sun, whether when rising or setting over the city,
seemed to be surrounded by headless trunks of human form. In cook rooms, upon food that
was clean and well-boiled, were seen, when it was served out for eating, innumerable
worms of diverse kinds.”
The above passage too reminds us of the effects of a nuclear explosion, as foodstuffs get infected in the aftermath of a nuclear explosion. In section 3, there is also a mention of the vaishnis taking shelter close to the sea coast. This might have as well meant that the vaisnis took shelter in the sea. As mentioned earlier, water is a natural shield to Nuclear radiations.
These above facts make us really wonder if the Mahabharata was indeed a nuclear war. In aid to the above mentioned facts, India, from times immemorial knew the existence of atoms and the atomic energy. The following shloka is evidence to the statement.

Monday, 3 June 2013


Ancient India was a land of Sages, Saints and Seers as well as a Land of Scholars & Scientists. Ancient Indians contribution to Science and Technology include:
Mathematics “Vedic literature is replete with concepts of ZERO, the Techniques of Algebra and Algorithm, Square Root and Cube Root. Arguably, the Origins of Calculus lie in India 300 years before Leibnitz and Newton.
Astronomy “ Rig Veda (2000 BC) refers to Astronomy.
Physics “Concepts of Atom and Theory of Relativity were explicitly stated by an Indian Philosopher around 600 BC.
Chemistry “Principles of chemistry did not remain abstract but also found expression in Distillation of Perfumes, Aromatic Liquids, Manufacturing of Dyes & Pigments, and Extraction of Sugar.
Medical Science & Surgery “Around 800 BC, First Compendium on Medicine & Surgery was complied in Ancient India.
Fine Arts “Vedas were Recited and Recitation has to be correct, which gave rise to a finer study of Sound and Phonetics. The natural corollary was Emergence of Music and other forms of Performing Arts.
Mechanical & Production Technology “Greek historians have testified to Smelting of certain Metals in India in the 4th Century BC.
Civil Engineering & Architecture “The discovery of urban settlements of Mohenjodaro and Harappa indicate existence of Civil Engineering & Architecture, which blossomed to a Highly Precise Science of Civil Engineering & Architecture and found expression in innumerable monuments of Ancient India.
Shipbuilding & Navigation“Sanskrit and Pali Texts have several references to Maritime activity by Ancient Indians.
Sports & Games “Ancient India is the Birth Place of Chess, Ludo, Snakes & Ladders and Playing Cards.
Earliest known Precise Celestial Calculations: Aryabhata, an Indian Mathematician (c. 500AD) accurately calculated celestial constants like earth’s rotation per solar orbit, days per solar orbit, days per lunar orbit.
Astronomical Time Spans: Apart from the peoples of the Mayan civilization, the ancient Hindus appear to be the only people who even thought beyond a few thousand years. Hindu scriptures refer to time scales that vary from ordinary earth day and night to the day and night of the Brahma that are a few billion earth years long.
Theory of Creation of the Universe: A 9th century Hindu scripture, The Mahapurana by Jinasena claims that the world is uncreated, as time itself is, without beginning and end. And it is based on principles.
Earth goes round the Sun: Aryabhata, it so happens, was apparently quite sceptical of the widely held doctrines about eclipses and also about the belief that the Sun goes round the Earth. As early as the sixth century, he talked of the diurnal motion of the earth and the appearance of the Sun going round it.
Binary System of Number Representation: A Mathematician named Pingala (c. 100BC) developed a system of binary enumeration convertible to decimal numerals. He described the system in his book called Chandahshaastra. The system he described is quite similar to that of Leibnitz, who was born in the 17th century.
Earliest and only known Modern Language: Panini (c 400BC), in his Astadhyayi, gave formal production rules and definitions to describe Sanskrit grammar. Starting with about 1700 fundamental elements, like nouns, verbs, vowels and consonents, he put them into classes. The construction of sentences, compound nouns etc. was explained as ordered rules operating on underlying fundamental structures.
Invention of Zero: Although ancient Babylonians were known to have used what is often called “place holders” to distinguish between numbers like 809 and 89, they were nothing more than blank spaces or at times two wedge shapes like”. The first notions of zero as a number and its uses have been found in ancient Mathematical treatise from India.
• The word “Algorithm”: Al-Khwarizmi’s work, De numero indorum (Concerning the Hindu Art of Reckoning), was based presumably on an Arabic translation of Brahmagupta where he gave a full account of the Hindu numerals which was the first to expound the system with its digits 0,1,2,3,…,9 and decimal place value which was a fairly recent arrival from India. The new notation came to be known as that of al-Khwarizmi, or more carelessly, algorismi; ultimately the scheme of numeration making use of the Hindu numerals came to be called simply algorism or algorithm, a word that, originally derived from the name al-Khwarizmi.
Representing Large Numbers: Mathematicians in India invented the base ten system in ancient times. But research did not stop there. The practice of representing large numbers also evolved in ancient India. notion of representing large numbers as powers of 10, one that was invented in India, turned out to be extremely handy.

Saturday, 1 June 2013



King Ashoka, the third monarch of the Indian Mauryan dynasty, has come to be regarded as one of the most exemplary rulers in world history. The British historian H.G. Wells has written: "Amidst the tens of thousands of names of monarchs that crowd the columns of history ... the name of Ashoka shines, and shines almost alone, a star."
Although Buddhist literature preserved the legend of this ruler -- the story of a cruel and ruthless king who converted to Buddhism and thereafter established a reign of virtue -- definitive historical records of his reign were lacking. Then in the nineteenth century there came to light a large number of edicts, in India, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan. These edicts, inscribed on rocks and pillars, proclaim Ashoka's reforms and policies.  These edicts, based on earlier translations, offers us an insight into a powerful and capable ruler's attempt to establish an empire, a reign which makes the moral and spiritual welfare of his subjects its primary concern.

In 1837, James Prinsep succeeded in deciphering (decoding) an ancient inscription on a large stone pillar in Delhi. Several other pillars and rocks with similar inscriptions had been known for some time and had attracted the curiosity of scholars. Prinsep's inscription proved to be a series of edicts issued by a king calling himself "Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi."
In the following decades, more and more edicts by this same king were discovered and with increasingly accurate decipherment (decoding) of their language, a more complete picture of this man and his deeds began to emerge. Gradually, it dawned on scholars that the King Piyadasi of the edicts might be the King Ashoka so often praised in Buddhist legends. However, it was not until 1915, when another edict actually mentioning the name Ashoka was discovered, that the identification was confirmed. Having been forgotten for nearly 700 years, one of the greatest men in history became known to the world once again.

Questionable Hereditary Succession
Ashoka became the new emperor or ruler of the Mauryan Empire in 274 BC. His grandfather, Chandragupta Maurya, had set out to conquer the weaker surrounding kingdoms to expand the territory of his people in 324 BC, and was the first to rule over a unified India.  Ashoka's father, Bindusara, established a reign much the same as his father's, controlling a larger kingdom than ever before known. When Bindusara became gravely ill, Ashoka succeeded him, although one hundred of his other brothers were eligible for the throne.But Ashoka becomes the king with the help of a minister Radhagupta. Many historians believe that Ashoka killed his 99 brothers leaving only one brother Tissa to become the king.

A Sudden Change of Heart
Ashoka's reign as an emperor began with a series of wars and bloodshed. He was very short tempered person. At that time he was called ‘Chandaashoka’, which means "Ashoka the Fierce".
Eight years after his rule, Ashoka's army attacked and conquered Kalinga, a country that roughly corresponds to the modern state of Orissa. The loss of life caused by battle, reprisals and the turmoil that always exists in the aftermath of war horrified Ashoka so much that it brought about a complete change in his personality. He subsequently became deeply influenced by Buddhism, and adopted the dharma, which consists of basic virtuous teachings that can be practiced by all men regardless of social origins. "Dharma" is derived from the Sanskrit word for "duty".Ashoka saw dharma as a righteous path showing the utmost respect for all living things. The dharma would bring harmony and unity to India in the form of much needed compassion. Serving as a guiding light, a voice of conscious that is the dharma can lead one to be a respectful and highly responsible human being.

Ashoka's dream was to unify a nation so large that its people of one region shared little in common with those of another region. Diversity of religion, ethnicity and many cultural aspects held citizens against each other, creating social barriers (I guess this was the time from where we get our present scenario). The moral order of dharma could be agreed upon as beneficial and progressive by all who could understand its merits. In fact, the dharma had long been a primary practice for members of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. Dharma became the link between king and commoner. Everyone lived by the same law of moral, religious and civil obligations towards others.

Pillars of the Earth
The reign of AshokaMaurya could easily have disappeared into history as the ages passed by, if hadn't he left behind a record of his trials. The testimony of this wise king was discovered in the form of magnificently sculpted pillars and boulders with the various actions and teachings he wished to be published, etched into the stone. What Ashoka left behind was the first written language in India since the ancient city of Harrapa. Rather than Sanskrit, the language used for inscription was the current spoken form called Prakrita. In translating these monuments, historians learn the bulk of what is assumed to have been true fact of the Mauryan Empire. It is difficult to determine whether or not some actual events ever happened, but the stone etchings clearly depict how Ashoka wanted to be thought of and remembered.

King Ashoka, the third monarch of the Indian Mauryan dynasty, has come to be regarded as one of the most exemplary rulers in world history. Although Buddhist literature preserved the legend of this ruler - the story of a cruel and ruthless king who converted to Buddhism and thereafter established a reign of virtue - definitive historical records of his reign were lacking. Then in the nineteenth century there came to light a large number of edicts, in India, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan. These edicts, inscribed on rocks and pillars, proclaim Asoka's reforms and policies and promulgate his advice to his subjects. The present rendering of these edicts, based on earlier translations, offers us insights into a powerful and capable ruler's attempt to establish an empire on the foundation of righteousness, a reign which makes the moral and spiritual welfare of his subjects its primary concern.

The Nine Unknown Men
According to occult lore, the Nine Unknown Men are a two millennia-old secret society founded by the Indian Emperor Ashoka 273 BC. After he converted to Buddhism, the Emperor founded the society of the Nine to preserve and develop knowledge that would be dangerous to humanity if it fell into the wrong hands. It is said that the Emperor Ashoka once aware of the horrors of war, wished to forbid men ever to put their intelligence to evil uses. During his reign natural science, past and present, was vowed to secrecy. Henceforward, and for the next 2,000 years, all researches, ranging from the structure of matter to the techniques employed in collective psychology, were to be hidden behind the mystical mask of a people commonly believed to be exclusively concerned with ecstasy and supernatural phenomena. Ashoka founded the most powerful secret society on earth: that of the Nine Unknown Men.
One can imagine the extraordinary importance of secret knowledge in the hands of nine men benefiting directly from experiments, studies and documents accumulated over a period of more than 2,000 years. What can have been the aim of these men? Not to allow methods of destruction to fall into the hands of unqualified persons and to pursue knowledge which would benefit mankind. Their numbers would be renewed by co-option, so as to preserve the secrecy of techniques handed down from ancient times.
Each of the Nine is supposedly responsible for guarding and improving a single book. These books each deal with a different branch of potentially hazardous knowledge.

A Well Respected Man
Somewhere along the way Ashoka became a Buddhist, and as a result taught and persuaded his people to love and respect all living things. He insisted on the recognition of the sanctity of all human life. The horrors of war have often transformed savage hearts into compassionate ones. Even the unnecessary slaughter or mutilation of animals was immediately abolished. Wildlife became protected by the king's law against sport hunting and branding. Limited hunting was permitted for consumption reasons but the overwhelming majority of Indians, chose by their own free will to become vegetarians. Ashoka also showed mercy to those imprisoned, allowing them leave for the outside a day of the year. He attempted to raise the professional ambition of the common man by building universities for study and water transit and irrigation systems for trade and agriculture. He treated his subjects as equals regardless of their religion, politics and cast. The kingdoms surrounding his, so easily overthrown, were instead made to be well-respected allies.

In his Own Words
“All men are my children. I am like a father to them. As every father desires the good and the happiness of his children, I wish that all men should be happy always”
During his reign, Ashoka became an avid Buddhist practitioner, building 84,000 stupas across his empire to house the sacred relics of the Lord Buddha. He sent his family on religious pilgrimages to foreign places, and staged massive assemblies so holy men from the world over could converse upon the philosophies of the day. More than even Buddhism was Ashoka's deep involvement in the dharma. The dharma became the ultimate expression of the moral and ethical standards he desired his subjects to live by. Ashoka defined the main principles of dharma (dhamma) as nonviolence, tolerance of all sects and opinions, obedience to parents, respect for the Brahmans and other religious teachers and priests, liberality towards friends, humane treatment of servants, and generosity towards all. These principles suggest a general ethic of behaviour to which no religious or social group could object.

In perhaps a fitting tribute to this great man of vision and unity, the Indian government has adopted the famous lion capital from his pillar at Sarnath as its official national emblem. The wheel design on the capital's base has also become the central figure of the nation's flag. May the wheel keep on turning for the sake of all men who are brothers in this brave new millennium of ours, and may the teachings of the Light of Asia continue to reach every corner of the earth despite what some inferior men may do or say.
Today, the Ashoka Chakra, the Wheel of Dharma, is featured on the national flag of India.  Ashoka used this image on many of his constructions.  The wheel has 24 spokes which represent:

  1. Love
  2. Courage
  3. Patience
  4. Peacefulness
  5. Kindness
  6. Goodness
  7. Faithfulness
  8. Gentleness
  9. Self-control
  10. Selflessness
  11. Self-sacrifice
  12. Truthfulness
  13. Righteousness
  14. Justice
  15. Mercy
  16. Graciousness
  17. Humility
  18. Empathy
  19. Sympathy
  20. Godly knowledge
  21. Godly wisdom
  22. Godly moral
  23. Reverential fear of God
  24. Hope/trust/faith in the goodness of God